|Electrosynthesis Company, Inc. maintains the strictest level of confidentiality in all of its R&D efforts. For this reason, we do not publish a list of the R&D clients that we have collaborated with. However, on occasion we are encouraged to publish work funded by others. The following selected publications will give an indication of areas in which Electrosynthesis Company and its employees have contributed to the advancement of electrochemical technology.
|Electrochemical Technology; Cells, Electrode Materials etc.The status of electrochemical technology is extensively reviewed each year in the Journal of the Electrochemical Society. Dr. Ram Gopal compiled this report for 1993 and 1994:
There are very few books available that discuss the scale-up of electrochemical technology. Electrosynthesis – From Laboratory to Pilot to Production has proven to be a very popular compilation of successfully implemented technology.
Research into electrode materials is always a “hot topic” in electrochemistry. Electrosynthesis Company has been the recipient of multiple awards from the National Science Foundation and Department of Defense to do research in this area.
|Electroorganic SynthesisElectrosynthetic methods are well known in their application to synthesis of pharmaceuticals and various organic intermediates. Among the books that have made a significant contribution to advancing this field are the Weissberger series edited by Norman Weinberg.
Electrosynthesis has become a valuable tool in the pharmaceutical industry. Electrosynthesis Company has collaborated with several companies in this area. Among those that have published some of our findings are Schering-Plough, Pfizer and Eli Lilly.
Electrosynthesis Company, Inc. has also been developing novel electrosynthetic methods for producing fine chemicals. A good example is a method for electrochemically producing the free base of Cysteine. In this approach the starting material cystine is dissolved in ammonium hydroxide to form a conductive ammonium salt. At the end of the electrolysis the ammonium hydroxide is simply evaporated to leave the pure product.
|Inorganic ElectrosynthesisThe chlor-alkali industry is one of the world’s largest chemical process, the economics of which rely on the balance for the demand of caustic soda and chlorine. Since these are not always the same, Electrosynthesis Company and others have investigated processes for the production of caustic soda without the co-production of chlorine (see Watts New, “Electrochemical Salt Splitting“). One such process was developed under funding from the National Science Foundation and in collaboration with Chemetics International.
Hydrogen Iodide is a valuable product used in the manufacture of a number of high purity iodine compounds. Electrosynthesis Company, in collaboration with Benham Electrosynthesis, has developed an electrochemical method that produces HI of a higher purity.
Electrosynthesis Company has worked with Chemical Products Corporation to develop an electrochemical process for the production of high purity alkaline earth metal hydroxides.
|Membrane Research Ion permeable membranes are an essential part of many electrochemical cells. Moreover, they are used extensively for electrochemical separation processes such as electrodialysis and salt splitting. Electrosynthesis Company has been working with several groups including the National Science Foundation and National Institute of Standards and Technology through an ATP NIST award with Eastman Chemical and Genencor International.
|Environmental ElectrochemistryIt is well known that electrochemistry offers a unique approach to both cleaner processing and remediation or recycle of waste streams.
The destruction of nitrates in a variety of waste streams can be achieved electrochemically. One area where we have been particularly active is in the destruction of nitrate in radioactive waste streams present at many of the DOE facilities. Electrosynthesis Company has been the recipient of several contracts from Westinghouse Savannah River Company for the destruction of such streams.
The destruction of organics in wastewater continues to be an area of interest to many companies. Electrosynthesis Company has been involved in the development of cell technologies in this field.
The electrochemical destruction of organic acids by converting them into combustible fuels is an attractive approach to the treatment of a waste stream. This approach was developed at Electrosynthesis Company in collaboration with DuPont Specialty Chemicals.
Electrosynthesis Company also successfully accomplished the electrochemical destruction of PCBs while working with Sandpiper.